Category Archives: Banking
The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) have made significant progress in setting up structures that would serve as an alternative to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, which are dominated by the U.S. and the EU. A currency reserve pool, as a replacement for the IMF, and a BRICS development bank, as a replacement for the World Bank, will begin operating as soon as in 2015, Russian Ambassador at Large Vadim Lukov has said.
Brazil has already drafted a charter for the BRICS Development Bank, while Russia is drawing up intergovernmental agreements on setting the bank up, he added.
In addition, the BRICS countries have already agreed on the amount of authorized capital for the new institutions: $100 billion each. “Talks are under way on the distribution of the initial capital of $50 billion between the partners and on the location for the headquarters of the bank. Each of the BRICS countries has expressed a considerable interest in having the headquarters on its territory,” Lukov said.
It is expected that contributions to the currency reserve pool will be as follows: China, $41 billion; Brazil, India, and Russia, $18 billion each; and South Africa, $5 billion. The amount of the contributions reflects the size of the countries’ economies.
By way of comparison, the IMF reserves, which are set by the Special Drawing Rights (SDR), currently stand at 238.4 billion euros, or $369.52 billion dollars. In terms of amounts, the BRICS currency reserve pool is, of course, inferior to the IMF. However, $100 billion should be quite sufficient for five countries, whereas the IMF comprises 188 countries – which may require financial assistance at any time.
BRICS Development Bank
The BRICS countries are setting up a Development Bank as an alternative to the World Bank in order to grant loans for projects that are beneficial not for the U.S. or the EU, but for developing countries.
The purpose of the bank is to primarily finance external rather than internal projects. The founding countries believe that they are quite capable of developing their own projects themselves. For instance, Russia has a National Wealth Fund for this purpose.
“Loans from the Development Bank will be aimed not so much at the BRICS countries as for investment in infrastructure projects in other countries, say, in Africa,” says Ilya Prilepsky, a member of the Economic Expert Group. “For example, it would be in BRICS’ interest to give a loan to an African country for a hydropower development program, where BRICS countries could supply their equipment or act as the main contractor.”
If the loan is provided by the IMF, the equipment will be supplied by western countries that control its operations.
The creation of the BRICS Development Bank has a political significance too, since it allows its member states to promote their interests abroad. “It is a political move that can highlight the strengthening positions of countries whose opinion is frequently ignored by their developed American and European colleagues. The stronger this union and its positions on the world arena are, the easier it will be for its members to protect their own interests,” points out Natalya Samoilova, head of research at the investment company Golden Hills-Kapital AM.
Having said that, the creation of alternative associations by no means indicates that the BRICS countries will necessarily quit the World Bank or the IMF, at least not initially, says Ilya Prilepsky.
Currency reserve pool
In addition, the BRICS currency reserve pool is a form of insurance, a cushion of sorts, in the event a BRICS country faces financial problems or a budget deficit. In Soviet times it would have been called “a mutual benefit society”, says Nikita Kulikov, deputy director of the consulting company HEADS. Some countries in the pool will act as a safety net for the other countries in the pool.
The need for such protection has become evident this year, when developing countries’ currencies, including the Russian ruble, have been falling.
The currency reserve pool will assist a member country with resolving problems with its balance of payments by making up a shortfall in foreign currency. Assistance can be given when there is a sharp devaluation of the national currency or massive capital flight due to a softer monetary policy by the U.S. Federal Reserve System, or when there are internal problems, or a crisis, in the banking system. If banks have borrowed a lot of foreign currency cash and are unable to repay the debt, then the currency reserve pool will be able to honor those external obligations.
This structure should become a worthy alternative to the IMF, which has traditionally provided support to economies that find themselves in a budgetary emergency.
“A large part of the fund goes toward saving the euro and the national currencies of developed countries. Given that governance of the IMF is in the hands of western powers, there is little hope for assistance from the IMF in case of an emergency. That is why the currency reserve pool would come in very handy,” says ambassador Lukov.
The currency reserve pool will also help the BRICS countries to gradually establish cooperation without the use of the dollar, points out Natalya Samoilova. This, however, will take time. For the time being, it has been decided to replenish the authorized capital of the Development Bank and the Currency Reserve Pool with U.S. dollars. Thus the U.S. currency system is getting an additional boost. However, it cannot be ruled out that very soon (given the threat of U.S. and EU economic sanctions against Russia) the dollar may be replaced by the ruble and other national currencies of the BRICS counties.
Source: Russia Beyond the Headlines –http://rbth.com/business/2014/04/14/brics_countries_to_set_up_their_own_imf_35891.html)
Okay Friends, I had talked privately to some about this but it looks like the cat is out of the bag. So since someone else wrote it, I will post it. There is a lot of intrinsic details to this move but it is happening and hopefully will make the world a better place.
The U.S. Government Defaulted in October, 2013.
In essence, China has been slowly buying up the Federal Reserve for some time now. If you can call it a purchase. Its more of a negotiation over assuming the liabilities of both the Federal Reserve and the U.S. Treasury.
The Federal Reserve is the largest holder of U.S. debt at $2.1 trillion. China is second at $1.3 trillion. Think of it as the United States government doing a debt consolidation of all its treasury bonds because it can no longer pay or service the debt.
China, or the BRICS countries, and/or a consortium of international interests, most likely organized through the I.M.F., will manage the U.S. debt through exchange rate increases and trade tariffs.
The reality for Americans for the next decade or more will be price increases/inflation of 30% to 50%, segmented by industry and region, until such a time that its debt, or a negotiated margin of their debt, is cleared from the books.
The post WW2 boom in the United States was funded by the exportation of the dollars inflation to what is now the emerging markets. Americans lived on the backs of other countries. Now the tables have turned. Or have been turning for many years already. This would explain outsourcing, trade agreements, immigration, favorite nation status, etc..
Why would China and other countries take on the risk of this debt? Simple, it’s economic reset or economic collapse. Its in the worlds interest to re-structure the U.S. debt to save the whole whale from beaching itself.
Rumors are circulating that the U.S. dollar will have a rate for in country use, and a separate international rate. That is because the U.S. treasury and the Federal Reserve are about to be severed from each other. The Treasury will control the in country dollar, and the “international reserve” dollar will be controlled by China and or the I.M.F. consortium of debt holders.
The U.S. in fact defaulted back in October of 2013. This has not been told to the public at large. Why would the congress insinuate that the debt ceiling is now irrelevant? The only way the debt ceiling, or debt limit,(eg. the amount the government can borrow) can become irrelevant is if the U.S. has in fact defaulted and the process of default negotiations are taking place. Think of it as the rest of the world cutting up the credit cards belonging to the United States government.
China has recently purchased the JP Morgan building in Manhattan for $725 million. One could reason that they have in fact purchased all of JP Morgan. And I’m sure it will soon be announced that China has or is in the process of purchasing other Western banks and physical assets. These banks make up the majority owners of the Federal Reserve.
The gold reserves of the west have been depleted by China. Some say there is no gold left. This is more physical assets gone from the legers of the Western banks. The system of debt based money creation of the Western world is dead. It’s over. The shift East is in the final stages of completion.
Obama’s so called “pivot east” is less about positioning assets to counter the stirring of the eastern dragon, and more to do with making those military assets easy to confiscate when the terminal day arrives.
It will happen over a weekend, as many have already predicted. The televisions will announce the largest deal in financial history between the Federal Reserve and China. They will discuss how all the worlds currencies have been revalued to reflect true production ratios and physical assets. Accounts will be balanced. War criminals will be prosecuted.
This is only a summary post to capture the broad strokes. Keep checking back as I will post a more detailed metric “oriented” essay on the thesis presented here. – JC
For several years, financial analysts, primarily those outside the mainstream of academia, have been warning that any day could be the black swan event that collapses the dollar, and ends U.S. hegemony as caretaker of the world’s reserve currency. That day has finally arrived as on Nov. 18, a former head trader for a major financial institution issued a harbinger and stated that 23 countries, and 60% of the world’s GDP, are right now setting up new swap lines which bypass the dollar, SWIFT, and the BIS, and will usher in a new global currency system which will kill the dollar.
The thoughts that are put into the minds of men that are aware of what is occurring on trading floors all over the world is when? When is also the question that I get asked about quite often by thousands of people. So what is the “when”? The “when” is what is the sure sign that this fraudulent sham that we call an economy is over? Folks the biggest sign is when those that trade in the dollar to acquire goods, no longer want the worthless paper because of US “bully” policies or they have totally lost faith in the US as a responsible steward of it’s currency and economy. That day has arrived.
All over the world economies that have not totally shot themselves in the foot by gambling in the Anglo-American casino are now moving to set up various currency exchanges by passing the dollar. – Rogue Money via Steve Quayle Q Alerts
The list of the 23 countries which are creating new swap lines outside of the dollar include China, Russia, India, and surprisingly, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. This means that the Eurozone itself is abandoning the dollar, and preparing for transition to a new central banking system.
To facilitate the transfer of currencies and swap lines, there needs to be a bank of sufficient size and stature to aid in handling of this monumental task. One year ago, China, along with the BRICs nations of Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, loaned money to a new financial institution they established and labeled the BRICs bank. This bank was created with the intention of bypassing the dollar, and allowing free trade to occur between nations without the need to trade for dollars first, as is currently the format under the petrodollar system. In fact, the new BRICs bank will function both as a bank of international settlement, as well as a lender of last resort, eliminating the need for the BIS and IMF, which currently reside under dollar dominion.
The only thing that stands in the way of the world’s final rejection of the dollar is the wavering trust that Saudi Arabia and OPEC have with the U.S. in assuring oil transactions remain denominated in dollars under the 1970’s Petrodollar agreement. But as the world has seen recently, even the Saudi kingdom is hedging towards a new global system, and has publicly stated that their ties to the U.S. are open for re-negotiation.
What started in September of last year, when an agreement between China and Russia ended the dollar’s stranglehold over oil and how it was purchased, the past 14 months have seen a momentous rush towards setting up the infrastructure to replace the dollar completely in global transactions. And with 23 countries, including those from the BRICs nations and the Eurozone, preparing for new swap lines outside of dollar hegemony, the fuse has been lit on the dollar’s death rattle, and the when has changed into the now.