Category Archives: FDIC
This document from Wikipedia will be dissected so that you the reader may understand exactly what the FDIC is and does and the exposures our money really has with or without the FDIC. I know some think Wiki is not that accurate but this article is very articulate so I decided to use it for this explanation.
The FDIC is a stop gap but is not your answer for true security. It is not part of our government and is not backed by our government. Please read all of this if you care about your money……
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION|
|FORMED||June 16, 1933|
|JURISDICTION||Federal government of the United States|
|EMPLOYEES||5,381 (2009, Q1)|
|AGENCY EXECUTIVE||Martin J. Gruenberg, Acting Chairman|
|Banking in the United States|
The Federal Reserve System
Money market account
Certificate of deposit
|Deposit account insurance
FDIC and NCUA
|Electronic funds transfer (EFT)
|Check Clearing System
Substitute checks • Check 21 Act
|Types of bank charter
Federal savings bank
Federal savings association
|v · d · e|
The FDIC’s satellite campus in Arlington, Virginia, is home to many administrative and support functions, though the most senior officials work at the main building in Washington.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation (just like you would set up – it is not “THE US Governments” personal Corporation) created by/for the Glass–Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, currently up to $250,000 per depositor per bank. As of November 18, 2010, the FDIC insures deposits at 7,723 institutions. The FDIC also examines and supervises certain financial institutions for safety and soundness, performs certain consumer-protection functions, and manages banks in receiverships (failed banks).
Insured institutions (banks participating with the FDIC – Not all do – Bank of North Dakota is a prime example and is one of the most robust banks in the nation – balance sheet wise http://www.banknd.nd.gov/) are required to place signs at their place of business stating that “deposits are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government.” (This previous sentence will be rebuttled later in this article) Since the start of FDIC insurance on January 1, 1934, no depositor has lost any insured funds as a result of a failure.
At Q4 2010 there were 884 banks having very low capital cushions against risk. It was nearly 12 percent of all federally insured banks, the highest level in 18 years.
Board of directors
The Board of Directors of the FDIC is the governing body of the FDIC. The Board is composed of five members, three appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate and two ex officio members. The three appointed members each serve six year terms. No more than three members of the Board may be of the same political affiliation. The President, with the consent of the Senate, also designates one of the appointed members as Chair of the Board, to serve a five year term, and one of the appointed members as Vice Chair of the Board, to also serve a five year term.
As of July 9, 2011, the members of the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation are:
- Martin J. Gruenberg – Acting Chairman of the Board
- Thomas J. Curry
- John Walsh – Acting Comptroller of the Currency
- John E. Bowman – Acting Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision
During the 1930s, the U.S. and the rest of the world experienced a severe economic contraction that is now called the Great Depression. In the U.S. during the height of the Great Depression, the official unemployment rate was 25% and the stock market had declined 75% since 1929. Bank runs were common because there wasn’t insurance on deposits at banks, banks kept only a fraction of deposits in reserve, and customers ran the risk of losing the money that they had deposited if their bank failed.
(The depression was caused but for time’s sake, we will not go into this here. Remember, cause a situation to get a result you want – that is our government. By creating a need for this new banking system, it knocked out any truly private banks and put them under this new FDIC umbrella where they had to be licensed and audited so all their books were open to the system and pay insurance to this new system/FDIC.)
- Established the FDIC as a temporary government corporation (not government at all – misleads us on purpose)
- Gave the FDIC authority to provide deposit insurance to banks
- Gave the FDIC the authority to regulate and supervise state nonmember banks
- Funded the FDIC with initial loans of $289 million through the U.S. Treasury and the Federal Reserve (If it was the governments, they would not have to loan itself money to get started. We allocate money all the time for new projects not loan)
- Extended federal oversight to all commercial banks for the first time (no bank is exempt here)
- Separated commercial and investment banking (Glass–Steagall Act)
- Prohibited banks from paying interest on checking accounts
- Allowed national banks to branch statewide, if allowed by state law.
Historical insurance limits
Bank sign indicating the original insurance limit offered by the FDIC of $2,500 in 1934.
- 1934 – $2,500
- 1935 – $5,000
- 1950 – $10,000
- 1966 – $15,000
- 1969 – $20,000
- 1974 – $40,000
- 1980 – $100,000
- 2008 – $250,000
The temporary increase in 2008 of the insurance limit to $250,000 was set to expire on 31 December 2013. However, the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (P.L.111-203), which was signed into law on July 21, 2010, made the $250,000 insurance limit permanent. In addition, the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 (P.L.109-171) allows for the Boards of the FDIC and the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) to consider inflation and other factors every five years beginning in 2010 and, if warranted, to adjust the amounts under a specified formula.
(We were starting to see/feel a insecurity of our funds so this new limit made us the consumers feel better about where our money was but the economy was not good at all – false security)
S&L and bank crisis of the 1980s
Main article: Savings and loan crisis
Federal deposit insurance received its first large-scale test in the late 1980s and early 1990s during the savings and loan crisis (which also affected commercial banks and savings banks).
The brunt of the crisis fell upon a parallel institution, the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC), created to insure savings and loan institutions (S&Ls, also called thrifts). Due to a confluence of events, much of the S&L industry was insolvent, and many large banks were in trouble as well. The FSLIC became insolvent and merged into the FDIC. Thrifts are now overseen by the Office of Thrift Supervision, an agency that works closely with the FDIC and the Comptroller of the Currency. (Credit unions are insured by the National Credit Union Administration.) The primary legislative responses to the crisis were the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA), and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA).
This crisis cost taxpayers an estimated $150 billion to resolve. (So where does this insurance the banks pay for come in? Here it states we the tax payers paid $150 Billion to resolve it)
2008-2010 Financial crisis
As a result of the financial crisis in 2008, twenty-five U.S. banks became insolvent and were taken over by the FDIC. However, during that year, the largest bank failure in terms of dollar value occurred on September 26, 2008 when Washington Mutual experienced a 10-day bank run on its deposits.
(We could go into this Washington Mutual situation and explain the details but it is not what we are trying to accomplish here educating you about the FDIC. Big banks fail for two reasons – corruption or takeovers – Washington Mutual was a takeover. The FDIC played their part by declaring it insolvent even though it technically was not)
On July 31, 2009, the FDIC launched its Legacy Loans Program (LLP)(Another non government corporation). This initiative is aimed at helping banks rid their balance sheets of toxic assets so they can raise new capital and increase lending.
On August 14, 2009, Bloomberg reported that more than 150 publicly traded U.S. lenders had nonperforming loans above 5% of their total holdings. This is important because former regulators say that this is the level that can wipe out a bank’s equity and threaten its survival. While this ratio doesn’t always lead to bank failures if the banks in question have raised additional capital and have properly established reserves for the bad debt, it is an important indicator for future FDIC activity.
On August 21, 2009, the 2nd largest bank, Guaranty Bank, in Texas became insolvent and was taken over by BBVA Compass , the U.S. division of Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria SA, the second-largest bank in Spain. This is the first foreign company to buy a failed bank during the credit crisis of 2008 and 2009. In, addition, the FDIC agreed to share losses with BBVA on about 11 billion of Guaranty Bank’s loans and other assets. This transaction alone cost the FDIC Deposit Insurance Fund $3 Billion. (Write a book on this one)
On August 27, 2009, the FDIC increased the number of troubled banks to 416 in the second quarter. That number compares to 305 just three months earlier. At the end of the third quarter that number jumped to 552.
On February 23, 2010, FDIC chairman Sheila Bair warned that the number of failures in 2010 could surpass the 140 banks that were seized in 2009. Commercial Real Estate overexposure has now been deemed the most serious threat to banks in 2010.
In 2010, 157 banks with approximately $92 billion in total assets failed. 
(This is called consolidation – who determines if a bank is insolvent – FDIC – who sells the bank to who? The FDIC sells the bank to a preferred list of buyers IT has – who is on the list of preferred buyers, the ones that the FDIC lets on their list.)
Between 1989 and 2006, there were two separate FDIC funds — the Bank Insurance Fund (BIF), and the Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF). The latter was established after the savings & loans crisis of the 1980s. The existence of two separate funds for the same purpose led to banks attempting to shift from one fund to another, depending on the benefits each could provide. In the 1990s, SAIF premiums were at one point five times higher than BIF premiums; several banks attempted to qualify for the BIF, with some merging with institutions qualified for the BIF to avoid the higher premiums of the SAIF. This drove up the BIF premiums as well, resulting in a situation where both funds were charging higher premiums than necessary.
Then Chairman of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan was a critic of the system, saying that “We are, in effect, attempting to use government to enforce two different prices for the same item – namely, government-mandated deposit insurance. Such price differences only create efforts by market participants to arbitrage the difference.” Greenspan proposed “to end this game and merge SAIF and BIF”.
(This same scenario folks is what has happened in different parts of banking. It is why we have our housing bubble and all of the problems we face in the banking industry right now. Some sort of arbitrage was done and was not addressed so that it could not be done. Was it illegal – not necessarily but certainly not ethical.)
Deposit Insurance Fund
In February, 2006, President George W. Bush signed into law the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 (“FDIRA”) and a related conforming amendments act. The FDIRA contains technical and conforming changes to implement deposit insurance reform, as well as a number of study and survey requirements. Among the highlights of this law was merging the Bank Insurance Fund (BIF) and the Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF) into a new fund, the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF). This change was made effective March 31, 2006. The FDIC maintains the DIF by assessing depository institutions an insurance premium. The amount each institution is assessed is based both on the balance of insured deposits as well as on the degree of risk the institution poses to the insurance fund. (This is how it should work so why do we the taxpayers have to pay for bailouts?)
Bank failures typically represent a cost to the DIF because FDIC, as receiver of the failed institution, must liquidate assets that have declined substantially in value while at the same time making good on the institution’s deposit obligations.
A March 2008 memorandum to the FDIC Board of Directors shows a 2007 year-end Deposit Insurance Fund balance of about $52.4 billion, which represented a reserve ratio of 1.22% of its exposure to insured deposits totaling about $4.29 trillion. The 2008 year-end insured deposits were projected to reach about $4.42 trillion with the reserve growing to $55.2 billion, a ratio of 1.25%. As of June 2008, the DIF had a balance of $45.2 billion. However, 9 months later, in March, 2009, the DIF fell to $13 billion. That was the lowest total since September, 1993 and represented a reserve ratio of 0.27% of its exposure to insured deposits totaling about $4.83 trillion. In the second quarter of 2009, the FDIC imposed an emergency fee aimed at raising $5.6 billion to replenish the DIF. However, Saxo Bank Research reported that after Aug 7th further bank failures had reduced the DIF balance to $648.1 million. FDIC-estimated costs of assuming additional failed banks on Aug 14th exceeded that amount.
(Going to break here and show you something. We see that the underlined sentence above shows the reserves of the FDIC reached a low of 1.22%. Do you realize this is less money than the banks had in them when the depression happened? Our safety net – our security we all believe in, the FDIC has less money in it than a normal bank owner of the depression carried in its vaults and this private agency is our insurance against loss.)
The FDIC announced its intent, on September 29, 2009 to assess the banks in advance for three years of premiums in an effort to avoid DIF insolvency. The FDIC revised its estimated costs of bank failures to about $100 billion over the next four years, an increase of $30 billion from the $70 billion estimate of earlier in 2009. The FDIC board voted to require insured banks to prepay $45 billion in premiums to replenish the fund. News media reported that the prepayment move would be inadequate to assure the financial stability of the FDIC insurance fund. The FDIC elected to request the prepayment so that the banks could recognize the expense over three years, instead of drawing down banks’ statutory capital abruptly, at the time of the assessment. The fund is mandated by law to keep a balance equivalent to 1.15 percent of insured deposits. As of June 30, 2008, the insured banks held approximately $7,025 billion in total deposits, though not all of those are insured.
The DIF’s reserves are not the only cash resources available to the FDIC: in addition to the $18 billion in the DIF as of June, 2010; the FDIC has $19 billion of cash and U.S. Treasury securities held as of June, 2010 and has the ability to borrow up to $500 billion from the Treasury. The FDIC can also demand special assessments from banks as it did in the second quarter of 2009.
This last paragraph has so much in it. We can now see that the FDIC is robbing Peter to pay Paul to look good to us. Let’s charge our banks three years insurance up front – hey that’s fair to the banks – that must have hurt actually. Then we see that even the media says that there still are not enough funds. Then we see that the FDIC is only mandated to have 1.15% of deposits in reserve in case there is a run on banks. Unbelieveable and banks pay for this because “We the people” buy into this lie that the FDIC is there to protect us. In fairness they can handle a bank or two going down but certainly not a run on banks like the depression which is why the FDIC was set up.
One more thing in this paragraph sticks out. If Treasury were to borrow 500B and if DIF had 18B and if FDIC has 19B that totals 537 Billion in possible emergency reserves. In 2008, the US banks had $7025 Billion in deposits. The 537 Billion is barely a tenth of the needed amount to cover a run on the banks – again no worse or better than the days of the depression except a private corporation is collecting insurance money)
“Full Faith and Credit” (Read this a couple times)
In light of apparent systemic risks facing the banking system, the adequacy of FDIC’s financial backing has come into question. Beyond the funds in the Deposit Insurance Fund above and the FDIC’s power to charge insurance premia, FDIC insurance is additionally assured by the Federal government. According to the FDIC.gov website (as of January 2009), “FDIC deposit insurance is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government”. This means that the resources of the United States government stand behind FDIC-insured depositors.” The statutory basis for this claim is less than clear. Congress, in 1987, passed a non-binding “Sense of Congress” to that effect, but there appear to be no laws strictly binding the government to make good on any insurance liabilities unmet by the FDIC.
(Spoke with a banking attorney for a couple hours to verify this paragraph and it is true, the government is not obligated in any contractual way to back the private corporation of the FDIC. This private corporation – push come to shove, could declare bankruptcy just like any other business if they were to fall into hardship without any recourse. SO one must ask, how safe is my money over 250K in a non bearing interest account? There is a purpose for the FDIC but the purpose it was set up is far from achieved. The FDIC plain and simple is not a government agency and in no way shape or form could cover a run on the banking system of the likes of the depression.)
To receive this benefit, member banks must follow certain liquidity and reserve requirements. Banks are classified in five groups according to their risk-based capital ratio:
- Well capitalized: 10% or higher (Better than the FDIC at 1.15%)
- Adequately capitalized: 8% or higher
- Undercapitalized: less than 8%
- Significantly undercapitalized: less than 6%
- Critically undercapitalized: less than 2% (hmmm still better than the FDIC at 1.15%)
When a bank becomes undercapitalized the FDIC issues a warning to the bank. When the number drops below 6% the FDIC can change management and force the bank to take other corrective action. When the bank becomes critically undercapitalized the FDIC declares the bank insolvent and can take over management of the bank.
Resolution of insolvent banks
The two most common methods employed by FDIC in cases of insolvency or illiquidity are:
- Purchase and Assumption Method (P&A), in which all deposits (liabilities) are assumed by an open bank, which also purchases some or all of the failed bank’s loans (assets). Other failed assets are auctioned online, primarily through The Debt Exchange and First Financial Network. (This is as I discussed up above – a preferred list)
- Payout Method, in which insured deposits are paid by the FDIC, which attempts to recover its payments by liquidating the receivership estate of the failed bank. These are straight deposit payoffs and are only executed if the FDIC doesn’t receive a bid for a P&A transaction or for an insured deposit transfer transaction. In a straight deposit payoff, no liabilities are assumed and no assets are purchased by another institution. Also, the FDIC determines the insured amount for each depositor and pays that amount to him or her. In calculating each customer’s total deposit amount, the FDIC includes all the interest accrued up to the date of failure under the contractual terms of the depositor’s account.
FDIC deposit insurance covers deposit accounts, which, by the FDIC definition, include:
- demand deposit accounts (checking accounts), and negotiable order of withdrawal accounts (NOW accounts, i.e., savings accounts that have check-writing privileges)
- savings deposit accounts (savings accounts), and money market deposit accounts (MMDAs, i.e., higher-interest savings accounts subject to check-writing restrictions)
- time deposit accounts including certificates of deposit (CDs)
- outstanding cashier’s checks, interest checks, and other negotiable instruments drawn on the accounts of the bank.
- accounts denominated in foreign currencies
Accounts at different banks are insured separately. All branches of a bank are considered to form a single bank. Also, an Internet bank that is part of a brick and mortar bank is not considered to be a separate bank, even if the name differs. Non-US citizens are also covered by FDIC insurance.
The FDIC publishes a guide entitled Your Insured Deposits, which sets forth the general characteristics of FDIC deposit insurance, and addresses common questions asked by bank customers about deposit insurance. (In other words only money/cash is insured)
Items not insured (read this well)
Only the above types of accounts are insured. Some types of uninsured products, even if purchased through a covered financial institution, are:
- Stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and money funds
- The Securities Investor Protection Corporation, a separate institution chartered by Congress, provides protection against the loss of many types of such securities in the event of abrokerage failure, but not against losses on the investments.
- Further, as of September 19, 2008, the US Treasury is offering an optional insurance program for money market funds, which guarantees the value of the assets.
- Exceptions have occurred, such as the FDIC bailout of bondholders of Continental Illinois.
- Investments backed by the U.S. government, such as US Treasury securities see this
- The contents of safe deposit boxes.
Even though the word deposit appears in the name, under federal law a safe deposit box is not a deposit account – it is merely a secured storage space rented by an institution to a customer.
These situations are often covered by special insurance policies that banking institutions buy from private insurance companies.
- Accounting errors.
In these situations, there may be remedies for consumers under state contract law, the Uniform Commercial Code, and some federal regulations, depending on the type of transaction.
(Make sure you understand that any products you buy listed here are not insured by the bank even if they sold you these products. Make sure you ask when buying these products how they will be insured if the bank is not insuring them. A large amount of people trust their banks to take care of them even going as far as trusts but they fail to ask how their assets are protected or insured. The moral of this is to get insured and probably even the money in your own accounts. Banks are businesses just like any other – they can fail – they do fail. We the people have a small guarantee against a bank failure but not a system failure.)
- FDIC Enterprise Architecture Framework
- FDIC problem bank list
- Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program
- National Credit Union Administration
- Too Big to Fail policy
- Financial crisis of 2007-2010
- List of largest U.S. bank failures
- 2008–2010 bank failures in the United States
- List of acquired or bankrupt United States banks in the late 2000s financial crisis
- Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation
- ^ “Statistics At A Glance”. FDIC. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- ^ “fdic key statistics”. Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- ^ 12 U.S.C. section 1828(a)(1)(B). Accessible online from Cornell law: US CODE: Title 12,1828. Regulations governing insured depository institutions
- ^ FDIC. “FDIC: Who is the FDIC?”. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
- ^ “Troubled banks rise to highest level in 18 years”. New York Post (News Corporation). February 24, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
- ^ a b “FDIC: Learning Bank”. Fdic.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ Changes in FDIC Deposit Insurance Coverage July 21, 2010 
- ^ Reform of Deposit Insurance (including the adjustment to $250,000 and allowing for adjustments every five years)  and FDIC Interim rule 
- ^ FDIC. “Failed Bank List”. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
- ^ Shen, Linda (2008-09-26). “WaMu’s Bank Split From Holding Company, Sparing FDIC”. Bloomberg. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- ^ Dash, Eric (2008-04-07). “$5 Billion Said to Be Near for WaMu”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- ^ FDIC. “Legacy Loans Program”. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- ^ Ari Levy. “Toxic Loans Topping 5% May Push 150 Banks to Point of No Return”. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
- ^ Barr, Colin (August 21, 2009). “Foreign banks can’t save everyone”. CNN. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- ^ “FDIC: Press Releases – PR-153-2009 8/27/2009″. Fdic.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ Eric Dash (November 24, 2009). “As Bank Failures Rise, F.D.I.C. Fund Falls Into Red”. The New York Times. p. B4. Retrieved 2009-11-28.
- ^ a b Dakin Campbell. “Avanta Bank, Six other U.S. Banks Collapse Due to Bad Loans”. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- ^ FDIC. “FDIC Trends, March, 2009″. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ^ Dakin Campbell. “Puerto Rico Banks Seized as Regulators Waive Deposit Limits”. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
- ^ “Failed Banks Class of 2010″. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- ^ Sicilia, David B. & Cruikshank, Jeffrey L. (2000). The Greenspan Effect, pp. 96–97. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-134919-7.
- ^ Sicilia & Cruikshank, pp. 97–98.
- ^ “”Assessment Rates for 2008,” p. 11. Retrieved on 2008-08-11.” (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ “Chief Financial Officer’s (CFO) Report to the Board: DIF Balance Sheet – Third Quarter 2008″. Fdic.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ a b Ari Levy and Margaret Chadbourn (July 10, 2009). “Bank of Wyoming Seized; 53rd U.S. Failure This Year (Update1)”. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ^ “”FDIC Statistics at a Glance.” Retrieved on 2008-08-11.” (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ Ari Levy and Margaret Chadbourn. “Lender Failures Reach 64 as Georgia Shuts Security Bank’s Units”. Retrieved 2009-07-224.
- ^ Bagger-Sjöbäck, Robin (August 12, 2009). “FDIC’s Shrinking Deposit Insurance Fund – A Testimony of Current Accounting Standards”. Saxo Bank Research. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
- ^ a b “FDIC Insurance Plan Is No Long-Term Solution”. New York Times. Associated Press. September 29, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
- ^ “Deposits of all FDIC-Insured Institutions, National Totals* by Asset Size: Data as of June 30, 2008″. Summary of Deposits. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
- ^ a b , FDIC 2nd quarter 2010 balance.
- ^ “Banks Tapped to Bolster FDIC Resources: FDIC Board Approves Proposed Rule to Seek Prepayment of Assessments”. Press Release (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation). September 29, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
- ^ “FDIC Extends Restoration Plan: Imposes Special Assessment”. Press Release(Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation). February 27, 2009. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- ^ “FDIC: Symbol of Confidence for 75 Years”. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
- ^ “FDIC Law, Regulations, Related Acts”. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
- ^ FDIC Website (accessed June 17, 2009)
- ^ “Chapter 4 – Deposit Payoffs”. FDIC. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- ^ a b “FDIC Law, Regulations, Related Acts – Rules and Regulations”. Fdic.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ a b “FDIC: Insured or Not Insured?”. Fdic.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ Henriques, Diana B. (2008-09-19). “Treasury to Guarantee Money Market Funds”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation|
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (official website)
- FDIC Statistics at a Glance (FDIC.gov)
- FDIC List of Failed Banks
- The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Conforming Amendments Act of 2005
- History including Boards of Directors
- 60 Minutes – Your Bank Has Failed: What Happens Next?